The Cradle of Mongolian Civilization - 5 days


Karakorum is the site of the 13th century capital of the Mongolian Empire created by Chinggis Khan. The founding of Karakorum started on the ruins of Turug and Uigur cities in the Orkhon valley at the eastern end of the Khangai Mountains in 1220 by the Chinggis Khaan's order.

5 days
  • Driving
  • Ger_camp

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Cradle of Mongolian Civilization

Day 1:
Arrival in Ulaanbaatar
Upon arrival at the airport you will be welcomed by our team. We will bring you to your comfortable, centrally located hotel. Ulaanbaatar is fast-growing modern city with more than 1.3 million habitants. Depending on your arrival time, city tour can be organised.
City sightseeing includes Bogd Khan's Winter & Summer Palace, a series of beautiful traditional buildings in which the eighth Living Buddha and the last king lived. It is now a museum displaying fascinating artefacts and costumes associated with the last king as well as his collection of stuffed animals.
We will stop at the Gandantegchinlen Monastery. It is the largest and most important monastery of Mongolia. We will scroll through the different monasteries and see the magnificent statue of Migjid Janraisig, an 82-food high statue gilded in gold and covered with silk cloths.
We will finish city tour with Zaisan hill to have a view of whole Ulaanbaatar. The city sightseeing tour takes about 4 – 5 hours.
You may have to check the famous folklore concert famous of its throat singing before going back to the hotel. In the evening your tour guide will give you a short briefing about the trip and answer all your questions before he takes you to a famous Mongolian restaurant for the first taste of Mongolian food.
(Hotel, D)
Central Mongolia
Day 2:
Karakorum
After an early wake up, we will set of for a driving day to Karakorum (also called Kharhorin).
Karakorum is the site of the 13th century capital of the Mongolian Empire created by Chinggis Khan. The founding of Karakorum started on the ruins of Turug and Uigur cities in the Orkhon valley at the eastern end of the Khangai Mountains in 1220 by the Chinggis Khaan's order. It was completed 15 years later during the Ugedei Khaan's reign. The town was a very cosmopolitan and religiously tolerant place.
The silver tree, part of Möngke Khan's palace has become the symbol of Karakorum.
The highest peak of its prosperity was from 1220 to 1260. The specific feature of this stage is that Karakorum existed as the great capital of the Euro-Asian Empire with Mongolia as its core and as the centre of politics, economy, culture, religion, intellect, and diplomacy and the prominent tie of international relations.
Between 1260 and 1380 Karakorum lost the status of the Great Mongolian Empire and became the capital of Mongolia. When Kublai Khan claimed the throne of the Mongol Empire in 1260, as did his younger brother, Ariq Boke, he relocated his capital to today's Beijing. Karakorum was reduced to the administrative centre of a provincial backwater of the Yuan Dynasty.
In 1368, the rule of Mongolian Yuan Dynasty collapsed and the centre of Mongolian government was shifted to its homeland after 110 years since Khubilai Khaan moved the Empire capital to China in 1260. It gave Karakorum a chance to prosper again.
In 1388, Ming troops under General Xu Da took and destroyed the town.
Today nothing is left from this legendary city.
In 1580, when Abtai Sain Khan together with his brother, lord Tumenkhen, visited the 3rd Dalai Lama and expressed their wish to build a temple in Mongolia, he advised them to reconstruct one old temple in Karakorum. The temple in Takhai ruins that was restored in 1588 according to the Dalai Lama's recommendation is the Main Zuu temple of Erdene Zuu monastery.
Now Erdene Zuu Monastery is all that remains of what once was a huge monastery of 100 temples and about 1.000 lamas residing there. We will explore the grounds of Erdene Zuu Monastery surrounded by its massive 400 m X 400 m walls. We will be guided around the 3 remaining temples: Dalai Lama, Zuu of Buddha and Lavrin Temple.
Another place we will visit will be Kharkhorin's New Archaeological Museum. It is a small museum but housed in a modern well-run building with good lighting and display cases with clear English labels. The exhibits include dozens of artefacts dating from the 13th and 14th centuries which were recovered from the immediate area, plus others that were found from archaeological sites in other parts of the provinces, including prehistoric stone tools. You'll see pottery, bronzes, coins, religious statues and stone inscriptions. There's also a half-excavated kiln sunk into the museum floor. Perhaps most interesting is the scale model of ancient Karakorum, which aims to represent the city as it may have looked in the 1250s, and is based on descriptions written by the French missionary William of Rubruck. Another chamber exhibits a most recent addition, a Turkic noble tomb with wall paintings and artefacts, including gold items and jewellery. There is a short video of actual burial site.
We will also see the Turtle Rock and the Phallic Rock, visit little market behind walls exposing local arts by locals.
(Ger camp B, L, D)
Karakorum
Day 3:
Ogii Lake and Turkish Monuments
After our breakfast we will head for Ogiin Lake, one of Mongolia's most beautiful lakes. On the way we will visit several historical places such as Khosho Tsaidam Monuments Khulitegenii Dorsal.
The Khosho Tsaidam Monuments, located in the Tsaidam Valley Lake along the western part of the Orkhon River in Mongolia, are two memorial monuments associated with the Gök Türk Empire in the early 8th century. These are the Bilge Khan (683-734) and Kul-Tegin (684-731) memorials –commemorating a politician and his younger brother who was Commander in Chief of the armed forces. Bilge Khan was one of the most powerful emperors of the Göktürk Empire. His accomplishments are immortalized in the Orkhon inscriptions. There are two other smaller memorials and a fifth that has recently been revealed.
The principal monument (Khulitegenii Dorsal) is a flat stone of more than 3 meters high. The stone has 68 lines of Turkic runes, two dragons and the mountain goat, device of the Ashina clan. The stone honours Kul-Tegin (684-731), a military leader of the Turkic empire. The stone is part of a larger memorial complex, created the year of the death of Kul-Tegin. It includes statues and a temple of worship.
(Ger camp B, L, D)
Turkish Monument
Day 4:
Ulaanbaatar via Khar Buhiin Balgas and Tsogtiin Tsagaan Baishin
Today we will drive back to Ulaanbaatar. On the way we will stop ancient ruins such as Khar Bukh Balgas and Tsogtiin Tsagaan Balgas.
Khar Bukh Balgas also called the ruins of the Prince is an elegant wall made of layered basaltic and grind stones. These 12th-century Kitan fortress ruins lie in the far south of Bulgan aimag. A stone monastery was built in the 17th century within the ruined walls.
Tsogt Tsagaan Balgas. The walls of the 10th century Kidan city that lies to the north east (20 km) from Khar Bukh Ruins. Later in the 17lh century, prince Tsogt used it as his army base from where he fought against the Chinese rule. It was also home to the mother of the Prince Tsogt. A large stone monument situated near those ruins bears an inscription in Mongolian and Tibetan characters, stating that at this place the construction of 6 temples began in 1601 and was completed in 1617. The great number of building foundations suggest that a large number of people lived here.
In the evening we will have a farewell dinner and share some unforgettable moments of the trip.
(Hotel, B, L, D)
Khar Buh Balgas
Day 5:
Departure
Time to say good bye to Mongolia. We will transfer you to the airport depending on your scheduled time.
(B)
Optional Day:
Khogno Khan Mountains and Elsen Tasarkhai
Khogno Khan Mountains is an impressive massif in the open steppes. Not far from here runs the Tasarkhai Els, a 100 km long sand dune.
End the afternoon we will hike in the region of Khogno Khan Mountains, walk up the mountain and enjoy the incredible view over the plains, the sand dune and grasslands. We will also visit the nice little Uvgun Monastery.
Elsen Tasarkhai
Optional Day:Orkhon Waterfall
The optional stop could be at Tuvhun Monastery, established during the 1650’s by Zanabazar, one of Mongolia’s most respected religious leaders. The monastery’s wooden buildings are integrated with a natural system of caves perched near a hilltop, from which you have beautiful views of the Orkhon Valley and the surrounding pine forests. On the top of the cliff, a pile of stones to worship a god of this mountain forms a hill. It is called Ovoo. The valley is registered as world cultural heritage by UNESCO due to its ancient findings, artefacts related to early 6th century and even before that. As well as, 12th to 13th century great Mongol empire had expanded its capital Karakorum here. Moreover, pasture nomadic lifestyle still remains here and it keeps both historic and nomadic view of life.
In the Quaternary era a volcano erupted near the beginning of the Tsagaan Azarga or White Stallion River and the lava flowed down the Orkhon valley forming the 10 meter thick layer of basaltic rocks. The basaltic layer was crosscut by the Orkhon River continuously and the canyon was formed as a result. The valley is registered as world cultural heritage by UNESCO due to its ancient findings, artefacts related to early 6th century and even before that. As well as, 12th to 13th century great Mongol empire had expanded its capital Karakorum here. Moreover, pasture nomadic lifestyle still remains here and it keeps both historic and nomadic view of life.
At the beginning of this canyon lays the 20 meters high, 10 meter wide waterfall. The most adventures of you will climb down the canyon and swim the lake located at the foot of the waterfall.
Orkhon Waterfall
Optional Day:Hustai National Park
Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii, also known as the Takhi horses) is a rare and endangered subspecies of wild horse native to the steppes of central Asia. The Takhi became extinct in the middle of the 20th century. They then could only be found in the zoos. Special breeding programs increased their numbers. At one time extinct in the wild, it has been reintroduced to its native habitat in Mongolia at the Khustain Nuruu National Park, Takhin Tal Nature Reserve and Khomiin Tal. Khustai Nuruu National Park was declared reserve status (category III) for over 50,000 hectares of the Khustain Nuruu area in 1993 but after significant scientific field researches into the area it was upgraded to a national park in 1998. Khustai Nuruu National Park is located about 100 km southwest from Ulaanbaatar. It protects today Mongolian's Takhi wild horses. Today there are about 350 Takhi horses in Khustai. The park is home to 459 species of vascular plants, 85 species of lichens, 90 species of moss and 33 species of mushrooms. 44 species of mammals have been recorded, including Red deer, Mongolian gazelle, Roe deer, Wild boar, Wild sheep, Ibex, Mongolian marmots, Grey wolves, Lynx, Pallas’ cat, Red fox, Corsac fox and Eurasian badger. The 217 species of birds include Golden eagle, Lammergeier, Great bustard, Whooper swan, Black stork, Daurian partridge and Little owl. There are 16 species of fish, 2 species of amphibians, and 385 species of insects (including 21 species of ants, 55 species of butterflies, 10 species of bush crickets and 29 species of grasshoppers).
After arrival at the camp of the Khustai Nuruu National Park we will meet the staff of the park and be introduced to the project. In the afternoon we will explore the beauties of the Park by jeep, on food or on horseback. We can visit as well local herders’ community nearby and see life of locals in countryside: their daily life taking care of herds and making diary products…
Przewalski Horse
Optional Day:Family stay in Central Mongolia and Horse Riding
The Family lives close to a river in the wide open Mongolian steps. We will experience the warm hospitality offered by the Mongolian families. For dinner we will be offered a typical Mongolian barbeque that will be prepared by nomads. Those who want will have the opportunity to try the “airag” or fermented horse milk. Our guide - translator will help us to forge contact with the local population.
Those interested will have the opportunity to do horse riding.
Nomadic Family
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Cradle of Mongolian Civilization

Day 1:
Arrival in Ulaanbaatar
Upon arrival at the airport you will be welcomed by our team. We will bring you to your comfortable, centrally located hotel. Ulaanbaatar is fast-growing modern city with more than 1.3 million habitants. Depending on your arrival time, city tour can be organised.
City sightseeing includes Bogd Khan's Winter & Summer Palace, a series of beautiful traditional buildings in which the eighth Living Buddha and the last king lived. It is now a museum displaying fascinating artefacts and costumes associated with the last king as well as his collection of stuffed animals.
We will stop at the Gandantegchinlen Monastery. It is the largest and most important monastery of Mongolia. We will scroll through the different monasteries and see the magnificent statue of Migjid Janraisig, an 82-food high statue gilded in gold and covered with silk cloths.
We will finish city tour with Zaisan hill to have a view of whole Ulaanbaatar. The city sightseeing tour takes about 4 – 5 hours.
You may have to check the famous folklore concert famous of its throat singing before going back to the hotel. In the evening your tour guide will give you a short briefing about the trip and answer all your questions before he takes you to a famous Mongolian restaurant for the first taste of Mongolian food.
(Hotel, D)
Central Mongolia
Day 2:
Karakorum
After an early wake up, we will set of for a driving day to Karakorum (also called Kharhorin).
Karakorum is the site of the 13th century capital of the Mongolian Empire created by Chinggis Khan. The founding of Karakorum started on the ruins of Turug and Uigur cities in the Orkhon valley at the eastern end of the Khangai Mountains in 1220 by the Chinggis Khaan's order. It was completed 15 years later during the Ugedei Khaan's reign. The town was a very cosmopolitan and religiously tolerant place.
The silver tree, part of Möngke Khan's palace has become the symbol of Karakorum.
The highest peak of its prosperity was from 1220 to 1260. The specific feature of this stage is that Karakorum existed as the great capital of the Euro-Asian Empire with Mongolia as its core and as the centre of politics, economy, culture, religion, intellect, and diplomacy and the prominent tie of international relations.
Between 1260 and 1380 Karakorum lost the status of the Great Mongolian Empire and became the capital of Mongolia. When Kublai Khan claimed the throne of the Mongol Empire in 1260, as did his younger brother, Ariq Boke, he relocated his capital to today's Beijing. Karakorum was reduced to the administrative centre of a provincial backwater of the Yuan Dynasty.
In 1368, the rule of Mongolian Yuan Dynasty collapsed and the centre of Mongolian government was shifted to its homeland after 110 years since Khubilai Khaan moved the Empire capital to China in 1260. It gave Karakorum a chance to prosper again.
In 1388, Ming troops under General Xu Da took and destroyed the town.
Today nothing is left from this legendary city.
In 1580, when Abtai Sain Khan together with his brother, lord Tumenkhen, visited the 3rd Dalai Lama and expressed their wish to build a temple in Mongolia, he advised them to reconstruct one old temple in Karakorum. The temple in Takhai ruins that was restored in 1588 according to the Dalai Lama's recommendation is the Main Zuu temple of Erdene Zuu monastery.
Now Erdene Zuu Monastery is all that remains of what once was a huge monastery of 100 temples and about 1.000 lamas residing there. We will explore the grounds of Erdene Zuu Monastery surrounded by its massive 400 m X 400 m walls. We will be guided around the 3 remaining temples: Dalai Lama, Zuu of Buddha and Lavrin Temple.
Another place we will visit will be Kharkhorin's New Archaeological Museum. It is a small museum but housed in a modern well-run building with good lighting and display cases with clear English labels. The exhibits include dozens of artefacts dating from the 13th and 14th centuries which were recovered from the immediate area, plus others that were found from archaeological sites in other parts of the provinces, including prehistoric stone tools. You'll see pottery, bronzes, coins, religious statues and stone inscriptions. There's also a half-excavated kiln sunk into the museum floor. Perhaps most interesting is the scale model of ancient Karakorum, which aims to represent the city as it may have looked in the 1250s, and is based on descriptions written by the French missionary William of Rubruck. Another chamber exhibits a most recent addition, a Turkic noble tomb with wall paintings and artefacts, including gold items and jewellery. There is a short video of actual burial site.
We will also see the Turtle Rock and the Phallic Rock, visit little market behind walls exposing local arts by locals.
(Ger camp B, L, D)
Karakorum
Day 3:
Ogii Lake and Turkish Monuments
After our breakfast we will head for Ogiin Lake, one of Mongolia's most beautiful lakes. On the way we will visit several historical places such as Khosho Tsaidam Monuments Khulitegenii Dorsal.
The Khosho Tsaidam Monuments, located in the Tsaidam Valley Lake along the western part of the Orkhon River in Mongolia, are two memorial monuments associated with the Gök Türk Empire in the early 8th century. These are the Bilge Khan (683-734) and Kul-Tegin (684-731) memorials –commemorating a politician and his younger brother who was Commander in Chief of the armed forces. Bilge Khan was one of the most powerful emperors of the Göktürk Empire. His accomplishments are immortalized in the Orkhon inscriptions. There are two other smaller memorials and a fifth that has recently been revealed.
The principal monument (Khulitegenii Dorsal) is a flat stone of more than 3 meters high. The stone has 68 lines of Turkic runes, two dragons and the mountain goat, device of the Ashina clan. The stone honours Kul-Tegin (684-731), a military leader of the Turkic empire. The stone is part of a larger memorial complex, created the year of the death of Kul-Tegin. It includes statues and a temple of worship.
(Ger camp B, L, D)
Turkish Monument
Day 4:
Ulaanbaatar via Khar Buhiin Balgas and Tsogtiin Tsagaan Baishin
Today we will drive back to Ulaanbaatar. On the way we will stop ancient ruins such as Khar Bukh Balgas and Tsogtiin Tsagaan Balgas.
Khar Bukh Balgas also called the ruins of the Prince is an elegant wall made of layered basaltic and grind stones. These 12th-century Kitan fortress ruins lie in the far south of Bulgan aimag. A stone monastery was built in the 17th century within the ruined walls.
Tsogt Tsagaan Balgas. The walls of the 10th century Kidan city that lies to the north east (20 km) from Khar Bukh Ruins. Later in the 17lh century, prince Tsogt used it as his army base from where he fought against the Chinese rule. It was also home to the mother of the Prince Tsogt. A large stone monument situated near those ruins bears an inscription in Mongolian and Tibetan characters, stating that at this place the construction of 6 temples began in 1601 and was completed in 1617. The great number of building foundations suggest that a large number of people lived here.
In the evening we will have a farewell dinner and share some unforgettable moments of the trip.
(Hotel, B, L, D)
Khar Buh Balgas
Day 5:
Departure
Time to say good bye to Mongolia. We will transfer you to the airport depending on your scheduled time.
(B)
Optional Day:
Khogno Khan Mountains and Elsen Tasarkhai
Khogno Khan Mountains is an impressive massif in the open steppes. Not far from here runs the Tasarkhai Els, a 100 km long sand dune.
End the afternoon we will hike in the region of Khogno Khan Mountains, walk up the mountain and enjoy the incredible view over the plains, the sand dune and grasslands. We will also visit the nice little Uvgun Monastery.
Elsen Tasarkhai
Optional Day:Orkhon Waterfall
The optional stop could be at Tuvhun Monastery, established during the 1650’s by Zanabazar, one of Mongolia’s most respected religious leaders. The monastery’s wooden buildings are integrated with a natural system of caves perched near a hilltop, from which you have beautiful views of the Orkhon Valley and the surrounding pine forests. On the top of the cliff, a pile of stones to worship a god of this mountain forms a hill. It is called Ovoo. The valley is registered as world cultural heritage by UNESCO due to its ancient findings, artefacts related to early 6th century and even before that. As well as, 12th to 13th century great Mongol empire had expanded its capital Karakorum here. Moreover, pasture nomadic lifestyle still remains here and it keeps both historic and nomadic view of life.
In the Quaternary era a volcano erupted near the beginning of the Tsagaan Azarga or White Stallion River and the lava flowed down the Orkhon valley forming the 10 meter thick layer of basaltic rocks. The basaltic layer was crosscut by the Orkhon River continuously and the canyon was formed as a result. The valley is registered as world cultural heritage by UNESCO due to its ancient findings, artefacts related to early 6th century and even before that. As well as, 12th to 13th century great Mongol empire had expanded its capital Karakorum here. Moreover, pasture nomadic lifestyle still remains here and it keeps both historic and nomadic view of life.
At the beginning of this canyon lays the 20 meters high, 10 meter wide waterfall. The most adventures of you will climb down the canyon and swim the lake located at the foot of the waterfall.
Orkhon Waterfall
Optional Day:Hustai National Park
Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii, also known as the Takhi horses) is a rare and endangered subspecies of wild horse native to the steppes of central Asia. The Takhi became extinct in the middle of the 20th century. They then could only be found in the zoos. Special breeding programs increased their numbers. At one time extinct in the wild, it has been reintroduced to its native habitat in Mongolia at the Khustain Nuruu National Park, Takhin Tal Nature Reserve and Khomiin Tal. Khustai Nuruu National Park was declared reserve status (category III) for over 50,000 hectares of the Khustain Nuruu area in 1993 but after significant scientific field researches into the area it was upgraded to a national park in 1998. Khustai Nuruu National Park is located about 100 km southwest from Ulaanbaatar. It protects today Mongolian's Takhi wild horses. Today there are about 350 Takhi horses in Khustai. The park is home to 459 species of vascular plants, 85 species of lichens, 90 species of moss and 33 species of mushrooms. 44 species of mammals have been recorded, including Red deer, Mongolian gazelle, Roe deer, Wild boar, Wild sheep, Ibex, Mongolian marmots, Grey wolves, Lynx, Pallas’ cat, Red fox, Corsac fox and Eurasian badger. The 217 species of birds include Golden eagle, Lammergeier, Great bustard, Whooper swan, Black stork, Daurian partridge and Little owl. There are 16 species of fish, 2 species of amphibians, and 385 species of insects (including 21 species of ants, 55 species of butterflies, 10 species of bush crickets and 29 species of grasshoppers).
After arrival at the camp of the Khustai Nuruu National Park we will meet the staff of the park and be introduced to the project. In the afternoon we will explore the beauties of the Park by jeep, on food or on horseback. We can visit as well local herders’ community nearby and see life of locals in countryside: their daily life taking care of herds and making diary products…
Przewalski Horse
Optional Day:Family stay in Central Mongolia and Horse Riding
The Family lives close to a river in the wide open Mongolian steps. We will experience the warm hospitality offered by the Mongolian families. For dinner we will be offered a typical Mongolian barbeque that will be prepared by nomads. Those who want will have the opportunity to try the “airag” or fermented horse milk. Our guide - translator will help us to forge contact with the local population.
Those interested will have the opportunity to do horse riding.
Nomadic Family

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